Politicians and the press an essay on role relationships

Media democracy focuses on the empowerment of individual citizens and promotion democratic ideals through the spread of information. Media democracy entails that media should be used to promote democracy [2] as well as the conviction that media should be democratic itself; [3] media ownership concentration is not democratic and cannot serve to promote democracy and therefore must be examined critically. The term refers to a modern social movement evident in countries all over the world which attempts to make mainstream media more accountable to the publics they serve and to create more democratic alternatives.

The concept of a media democracy follows in response to the deregulation of broadcast markets and the concentration of mass media ownership. Herman and Noam Chomsky outline the propaganda model of media, which states that the private interests in control of media outlets will shape news and information before it is disseminated to the public through the use of five information filters.

Media democracy allows people the right to participate in media, it extends the media's relationship to the public sphere , where the information that is gathered and can be viewed and shared by the people.

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The public sphere can be seen as a theater in modern societies in which political participation is enacted through a medium of talk and a realm of social life which public opinion can be formed. The public sphere has changed because of the development of mass communication, giving people opportunities to participate in media and the right to share information through all channels of communications. Media democracy advocates that corporate ownership and commercial pressures influence media content, sharply limiting the range of news, opinions, and entertainment citizens receive. Consequently, they call for a more equal distribution of economic, social, cultural, and information capital, which would lead to a more informed citizenry, as well as a more enlightened, representative political discourse.

The competitive structure of the mass media landscape stands in opposition to democratic ideals since the competition of the marketplace effects how stories are framed and transmitted to the public. This can "hamper the ability of the democratic system to solve internal social problems as well as international conflicts in an optimal way. Media democracy is grounded in creating a mass media system that favours a diversity of voices and opinions over ownership or consolidation, in an effort to eliminate bias in coverage.

This, in turn, leads to the informed public debate necessary for a democratic state.

The new media’s role in politics

Cultural studies have investigated changes in the increasing tendency of modern mass media in the field of politics to blur and confuse the boundaries between journalism, entertainment, public relations and advertising. The last several decades have seen an increased concentration of media ownership by large private entities. In the United States, these organizations are known as the Big Six.


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A similar approach has been taken in Canada, where most media outlets are owned by national conglomerates. This has led to a reduction in the number of voices and opinions communicated to the public; to an increase in the commercialization of news and information; a reduction in investigative reporting; and an emphasis on infotainment and profitability over informative public discourse. The concentration of media outlets has been encouraged by government deregulation and neoliberal trade policies.

In the United States, the Telecommunications Act of removed most of the media ownership rules that were previously put in place. This led to a massive consolidation of the telecommunications industry.

Politicians and the Press: An Essay on Role Relationships | City, University of London

Over 4, radio stations were bought out, and minority ownership in TV stations dropped to its lowest point since , when the federal government began tracking the data. The World Wide Web , and in particular Web 2. The use of digital social networking technologies to promote political dissent and reform lends credibility to the media democracy model. This is apparent in the widespread protests in the Middle East and North Africa known as the Arab Spring where social media sites like Facebook , Twitter , and YouTube allowed citizens to quickly connect with one another, exchange information, and organize protests against their governments.

www.newyorkethnicfood.com/wp-content/works/family-thais.php While social media cannot solely be credited with the success of these protests, the technologies played an important role in instilling change in Tunisia, [20] [21] Egypt, [22] [23] and Libya. These acts show a population can be informed through alternative media channels, and can adjust its behaviour accordingly. Crowdfunded websites have also been linked to a heightened spread of media democracy. Story by Andra Brichacek. Video by Ryan Lund and Aaron Nelson. Recent shifts in the media landscape have changed how the press interacts with candidates, campaigns and the voting public.

And, at a time when trust in the media is at an all-time low , the fourth estate has come under fire from critics on both sides of the aisle for its coverage of the elections. The first way journalists get involved in elections is by choosing which candidates to cover and how much. Turnbull Portland Center. And, thanks to his preexisting fame and ability to generate controversy, those stories were often about Trump.

Did all the free press make a difference? Research reveals that many major media outlets attract partisan audiences , which reflects political biases in their coverage.


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And that gap is clearly related to the rise of more partisan media sources. What they might not realize is that the news they see is heavily filtered. On the other hand, social media gives users more direct access to candidates than ever before. And candidates have unprecedented control over the images they present. The photos news organizations choose to publish and such factors as their size and layout can also influence voter perceptions — and reveal possible bias.

Some led with an image of her husband. And other newspapers led with an image of Donald Trump.

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Rise of new media upends political communications. The rise of new media over the past three decades has complicated the political media system.

Legacy media consisting of established mass media institutions that predate the internet, such as newspapers, radio shows, and television news programs, coexist with new media that are the outgrowth of technological innovation websites, blogs, video-sharing platforms, digital apps, and social media. New media can relay information directly to individuals without the intervention of editorial or institutional gatekeepers, which are intrinsic to legacy forms. Thus, new media have introduced an increased level of instability and unpredictability into the political communication process.

The relationship between legacy media and new media is symbiotic. Legacy media have incorporated new media into their reporting strategies. They distribute material across an array of old and new communication platforms. They rely on new media sources to meet the ever-increasing demand for content. Despite competition from new media, the audiences for traditional media remain robust, even if they are not as formidable as in the past. Consequently, new media rely on their legacy counterparts to gain legitimacy and popularize their content.